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Guide On How To Properly Format Citations In Dissertation

Whether you are borrowing an idea, a fact, a direct quote, or paraphrasing information in your dissertation, you should always make a proper citation to apply credit to someone else’s work. Citations give your paper credibility, while also ensuring that the borrowed information doesn’t bring up accusations of plagiarism. Here is a short guide on how to properly format citations in a dissertation:

In-Text Citation Basics

These are some the basics you should always keep in mind with providing in-text citations: 1) all proper nouns should be capitalized. If you include the title of the resource in your writing, you should capitalize all the word that are four letters long or more. The only exceptions – words that should be capitalized no matter what – verbs, pronouns, nouns, adverbs and adjectives.

Citing Short Quotations

If you are citing a short quote you need to include the author’s name, year of publication, and the page number where the quote appears. You can use a signal phrase such as “According to Dr. Hamil” or “Jones’ data finds” followed by the year in parentheses and then include the direct quotation, with the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Citing Long Quotations

Quotations that are four or more lines are usually entered as a free-standing block of text that is indented exactly ½” from the left margin. Don’t use quotation marks, underlining, or italics to distinguish the long quote. The block-format is a simple and acceptable way of signaling to the reader that these aren’t your original words.

Citing Summaries/Paraphrases

When you summarize or paraphrase some idea from another work most formatting styles require you to only make a reference to the author and the year in which the work was published. APA style, however, additionally requires you to include the page number(s) in which the idea appears in its definitive form.

Complete Citation Information

There are various ways to enter information in the works cited page depending on the type of resource you are using. For instance, if you are citing another dissertation your entry will look different than if you were citing a government publication. It’s a good idea to use a specific style guide to find out about the details. Generally, though each entries will be arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name, followed by the title of the work, publication information, and the date in which it was published.

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